The so-called “Engadine Dolomites” owe their name to the presence of dolomite rock throughout the region.

Most of the mountains in the National Park consist of dolomite, a yellowish-grey rock that looks very similar to limestone. The sequence of dolomitic layers, which is more than 1000m thick, was developed from chemical and bio-chemical sediments that accumulated on the edge of an ocean over 200 million years ago. The climate then was dry and warm, similar to the present-day climate in the Persian Gulf.

Dolomite varies in colour between beige, greyish-brown and grey. It is very difficult for a layperson to distinguish between dolomite and limestone. Unlike limestone, dolomite has a high magnesium content and is very friable.